Milan Tahraoui | Associate Postgraduate

The State, Political Norms and Political Conflicts
Centre Marc Bloch, Friedrichstraße 191, D-10117 Berlin
Email: milantahraoui  ( at ) Tel: +49(0) 30 / 20 93 70700

Home Institution : Hochschule für Wirtschaft und Recht Berlin (HWR) | Position : Associated Ph.D. Candidate (CMB), Research fellow (HWR Berlin), Ph.D. Candidate (Paris 1/FU Berlin) | Disciplines : Law , Public Law |


After studying law, economics and management in the CPGE D1 programme at the Lycée Carcouët and the Faculty of Law and Political Sciences at the University of Nantes, I obtained my Bachelor's, Master's 1 and Master's 2 degrees in international and European law at the University of Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne. After my studies, I was for a year a member of Laurent Gbagbo's defence team before the International Criminal Court, from the pre-trial phase to the confirmation of charges. Following this professional experience, I enrolled for a PhD in international and European law at the Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne, before starting work as a research fellow at the Max Planck Institute for International and Comparative Law in Heidelberg. After this position ended, I worked for a year as a consultant in international and European affairs before joining the HWR Berlin as a research fellow in an interdisciplinary research project dealing with the legal regulation of AI systems for deepfake detection in the criminal law enforcement context. Since September 2021, I am an associated PhD student at the Centre Marc Bloch.


General international law

International human rights law

Competence and jurisdiction

Digital surveillance and espionage 

Protection of the private sphere

Artificial intelligence

Title of thesis
Transnational protection of the private sphere in the face of digital surveillance: beyond the "international law of paranoia"?
Institution of thesis
Paris 1 Pantheon-Sorbonne Universität/FU Berlin
Evelyne Lagrange (Paris 1)/Anne Peters (FU Berlin)
Organisation of Events

Organisation of scientific events 

January 2018 (Paris): Co-organiser of the young researchers' colloquium on "Historical Capitalism and International Law", organised in collaboration with CIERA, HeiParisMax, CDFA, MPIL Heidelberg and SciencesPo 

October 2017 (Berlin): Co-organiser of the young researchers' colloquium on "Race and Law: Franco-German Cross-Perspectives", organised in collaboration with the Marc Bloch Centre, HeiParisMax, CDFA, MPIL and the Law & Society Institute of HU Berlin

June 2017 (Heidelberg): Co-organiser of the 12th Franco-German meeting of young researchers in comparative public law, international law and European law, in collaboration between CDFA and HeiParisMax, organised at MPIL 

September 2016 (Paris): Co-organiser of the young researchers' colloquium on "Digital surveillance and cyberespionage: a Franco-German perspective", organised with the support of CIERA, MPIL Heidelberg, Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne, CDFA and HeiParisMax at the Maison de la Recherche of CIERA Paris

May 2015 (Heidelberg): Coordinator (with Dr. Dana Burchardt) of the third Max Planck Masterclass in International Law with Emmanuelle Tourme-Jouannet (Sciences Po) on the topic "Rethinking International Law" at the MPIL in Heidelberg

November 2014-January 2015 (Heidelbeg): Co-organisation of the lecture series "Who governs the Internet?" (University of Heidelberg, 1 October 2014 - 31 January 2015)

FAKE-ID – Video analysis using artificial intelligence (AI) to detect false and manipulated identities

In doing so, it lays the foundations for the development of a detection program that can in turn use AI to assess the (presumed) authenticity of digital images and videos or their forgery.

Deepfakes are image and video forgeries produced using artificial intelligence (AI). They are primarily used to spread (political) disinformation, but also to manipulate digital proof of identity. With the expansion of digital identification procedures, incidences of deepfake-based fraud are increasingly targeting private individuals. The FAKE-ID project is developing legal and ethical standards that can be used to identify and classify manipulated images and video data streams. In doing so, it lays the foundations for the development of a detection program that can in turn use AI to assess the (presumed) authenticity of digital images and videos or their forgery.

This FÖPS sub-project deals with the legal, ethical and societal requirements for the development of an AI-based detection programs used by police. Among other topics, this project addresses ethical issues in the use of machine learning necessary for the development of the system; transparency, traceability, and responsibilities of decisions made with the help of “weak AI”; legal and ethical requirements for the usability of detection results in legal proceedings; and protection against exclusively automated decisions, as provided for in Art. 22 of the EU Data Protection Regulation. To this end, FÖPS is working closely with governmental and private information technology institutions to design the AI-based detector from the ground up, in accordance with the principles of Privacy by Design and by Default in a privacy-compliant manner. In the spirit of participatory research, FÖPS is also seeking to create an in-depth discussion with non-governmental organizations (NGOs) that are focused on the dangers of AI use in a security context.

In addition to HWR Berlin, the FAKE-ID consortium is made up of Bundesdruckerei GmbH (lead of consortium), Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, the Fraunhofer Heinrich Hertz Institute (HHI) and BioID GmbH (BIOID). Associated partnerships exist with the Central Office for Information Technology in the Security Sector (ZITiS), the State Criminal Police Offices of Berlin and Saxony-Anhalt, the Deutsche Post DHL Group (DP), the Cybersecurity Network Saxony-Anhalt, and the University of Applied Sciences for Administration and Services (FHVD).

The overall project is funded by the BMBF as part of the thematic area “Artificial Intelligence in Civil Security Research”. Prof. Dr. Hartmut Aden and Prof. Dr. Sabrina Schönrock head the FÖPS subproject.


Kanad Bachi, Milan Tahraoui, “Beyond Co-Option and Contestation: The Chinese Belt and Road Initiative and the Universality of International Law” in Işil Aral, Jean d’Aspremont (eds.), Universality and International Law, Oxford, Oxford University Press, European International Law Society Series, 2024, pp. 223-254. 

Milan Tahraoui, Christian Krätzer, Jana Dittmann, “Defending informational sovereignty by detecting deepfakes? Opportunities and risks of an AI-based detection of deepfakes-based disinformation and illegal activities”, Weizenbaum Journal, 2023, Vol. 2, No. 1, at

Hartmut Aden, Sabrina Schönrock, Steven Kleemann, Milan Tahraoui, “Faire globale Daten-Governance im Sicherheitbereich? Risiken bei der internationalen Zusammenarbeit von Sicherheitsbehörden und eine mögliche Rolle der Europäischen Union” in Forum Privatheit 2022: Daten-Fairness in einer globalisierten Welt, Baden-Baden, Nomos, 454p., 2023, pp. 285-315. 

Milan Tahraoui, “Data Surveillance Since the Snowden Revelations: A Grotian Moment in International Law?”, Grotiana, 2022, Vol. 43, No. 1, pp. 87-112.

Hartmut Aden, Sabrina Schönrock, Sonja John, Milan Tahraoui, Steven Kleemann, “Accountability-Vorkehrungen für die Erfüllung von Menschenrechtspflichten der Polizei bei der Nutzung Künstlicher Intelligenz, Zeitschrift für Menschenrechte/Journal of Human Rights, 2022, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 50-74.

Anna Louban, Milan Tahraoui, Hartmut Aden, Jan Fährmann, Christian Krätzer und Jana Dittmann, “Das Phänomen Deepfakes. Künstliche Intelligenz als Element politischer Einflussnahme und Perspektive einer Echtheitsprüfung” inForum Privatheit 2021: Künstliche Intelligenz, Demokratie und Privatheit, Baden-Baden, Nomos, 409p., 2022, pp. 265-289.

Milan Tahraoui, “Surveillance des flux de données : juridiction ou compétences de l’État, des notions à refonder” in Matthias Audit et Etienne Pataut (eds.), L’extraterritorialité, Pedone, Paris, 214p., 2020. pp. 141-194.

Milan Tahraoui, “Book Essay: Yasuaki ONUMA, International Law in a Transcivilizational World (Cambridge: CUP; 2017)”, Zeitschrift für Ausländisches Recht und Völkerrecht/Heidelberg Journal of International Law, 2018, Vol. 4, pp. 1046-1064.

Milan Tahraoui, “Unilateralism ahead? Human rights, digital surveillance and the “extraterritorial question” in international law”, Völkerrechtsblog, 12 December 2016, at

Milan Tahraoui, “L’Institut Max Planck pour le droit public comparé et le droit international de Heidelberg”, Chronique droit international public, Panorama des activités des centres de recherche allemands, Revue de droit allemand, July/December 2015, at